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Replacement: of animals with non-sentient animal or non-animal alternatives.
Reduction: in the number of those sentient animals to the minimum necessary to achieve the scientific objective.
Refinement: of the procedures applied to decrease to the minimum practicable extent the negative impacts they have on the animals.
Manager, of Animal Welfare Standards
Ministry for Primary Industries
PO Box 2526
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Last updated on Wednesday 14 September 2016